Definition: Three types of active participation can be used to assure high levels of student involvement in a lesson:
Overt Active Participation is observable and measurable. You can see or hear
students learning. Talking, writing, speaking, and gesturing are evidence of overt participation.
Covert Active Participation takes place in the mind. Although students are
engaged in the learning, their engagement cannot be observed or measured. Reading, thinking, imagining, and visualizing are evidence of covert participation.
Combination Active Participation combines covert with overt participation to
strengthen engagement AND provide observable and measurable evidence of it.
Critical Attributes: Student engagement is only classified as active participation when it satisfies all five of its critical attributes.
C – It is congruent to the parts of the instructional objective
A – All students participate.
S – Students participate simultaneously (at the same time)
I – Students are involved in questions or activities that process the learning.
T– The active participation occurs throughout the lesson.
Congruence is the true measure of active participation. Good learning happens when all students are doing activities and answering questions that are congruent to the learning objective.
Wait time is critical. Teachers must be sure they give students enough time to participate before they hold students accountable for the learning.
Individual accountability is critical. Teachers must monitor student participation and make sure all students do participate. Teachers must also hold individual students accountable for what they have learned at some point.