FORMULATING AN INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVE
1. Content – What will be taught– District Indicators – Need to know
2. Level of Thinking – Bloom’s Taxonomy – (Knowledge, Comprehension, Synthesis, Evaluation, Analysis, Application)
3. Assessment (Student Behavior) – The learner demonstrate learning/ observable / all students/ relates to assessment
- Conditions – Time, supplies, resources, expectations to demonstrate learning of student behavior – the teacher sets for assessing the behavior.
- Performance Level – expected performance on the assessment of the behavior/ “output must demonstrate learning” / must be measurable / congruent to entire objective / possible rubric used by educator – expected on the assessment of the behavior. /% to get correct, 4 out of 5.
Step 1. Content
Subject Area/Content comes from district outcomes, especially the grade level indicators for a course or curriculum.
- How will you decide what content students absolutely need to know
- What content is nice to know and remember that nice to know is only for enrichment
Performance content means that teachers must also teach.
- Thinking Skills – How will students learn how to Analyze? Compare? Contrast? Evaluate?
- Performance Skills – How will students learn how to make ____?
- Product Skills – How will students learn how to assemble and write a _______?
Teachers are responsible for making sure that ALL students receive the same “need to know” subject area and performance content.
Step 2. Level of Thinking – Blooms Taxonomy
KNOWLEDGE: RECALLING OR RECOGNIZING INFORMATION AS IT WAS LEARNED.
Level of thinking – discover, explore identify, observe, listen, ask, list, recite, find, quote.
Action – remembering, memorizing, recognizing, recalling identification, recalling, information, who, what, when, where, how, describe, list facts, timeline, draw what you know.
Useful Verbs – tell, list, describe, relate, locate, write, find, state, name,
COMPREHENSION: UNDERSTANDING THE MATERIAL COMMUNICATED WITHOUT RELATING IT TO ANYTHING ELSE.
Level of Thinking – describe, restate, summarize, confirm, paraphrase, express, explain
Action – Interpreting, translating from one medium to another, describing in one’s own words, organization and selection of facts and ideas, retell…
Useful Verbs – explain, interpret, outline, discuss, distinguish, predict, restate, translate, compare, describe,
APPLICATION: USING THIS INFORMATION TO SOLVE A PROBLEM WITH A SINGLE CORRECT ANSWER. how is … an
Level of Thinking – use, produce, apply,
Action – example of …? how is … related to …? why is … significant?, How does this apply to another situation.
Useful Verbs – show, use, construct, complete, examine, classify, illustrate, solve
ANALYSIS: BREAKING INFORMATION DOWN INTO ITS COMPONENT PARTS.
Level of Thinking – categorize, separate, classify, examine, differentiate, compare/contrast
Action – what are the parts or features of …? classify … according to … outline/diagram … how does … compare/contrast with (Venn Diagram) …? what evidence can you list for …? make a web, design a questionnaire to gather information and analyze what you find, write a commercial to sell, write a review, illustrate information with a graph and analyze.
Useful Verbs – examine, compare, contrast, identify, explain, separate, analyze, distinguish, investigate, categorize,
SYNTHESIS: CREATING SOMETHING NEW FROM PARTS NOT PREVIOUSLY RELATED.
Level of Thinking – infer, develop, compose, build, invent, create, generalize, predict, blend, improve, imagine, and hypothesize.
Action – what would you predict/infer from …? what ideas can you add to …? how would you create/design a new …? what might happen if you combined …? what solutions would you suggest for …? how could I change…, construct something new that will change it,
Useful Verbs – compose, predict, plan construct, design, imagine propose, devise formulate, create vent
EVALUATION: MAKING JUDGMENTS, PUTTING OPINIONS IN ORDER, AND APPLYING STANDARDS.
Level of Thinking – Rank, critique, peer/self, judge, justify, decide, rate, conclude, assess, evaluate
Action – do you agree that …? what do you think about …? what is the most important …? place the following in order of priority … how would you decide about …? what criteria would you use to assess …? make a recommendation, debate, prepare a list of most important to least important and tell why.
Useful Verbs – choose, decide, justify, debate, verify, argue, recommend, assess, discuss, rate, determine, judge select
Step 3. Assessment of Learning – All students, by themselves, before the completion of the lesson
a. Student Behavior:
Student behavior MUST BE OBSERVABLE. Teachers cannot assess what they cannot see or hear. Must be an over behavior that is congruent and measurable with the objective. Can not be homework or done outside of class.
Student behavior must occur during the lesson
Student behavior must be something all students complete and something the teacher can monitor for all students.
Student behavior can be a formative assessment- an assessment for learning that is usually not graded. It can be a summative assessment – an assessment of learning that usually is graded. It should always serve as a diagnostic assessment that tells both teachers and student how well the learning is going.
b. Conditions – The clearer the conditions the better the assessment.
Teachers will decide how much time students will have, which materials they will use, and which resources/people or things will support the demonstration of learning stated in the student behavior.
Materials – What materials can students use for the task being assessed in the behavior? Books? Notes? Handouts? Reference books?
Time – How much time in class is given for each question or activity being assessed in the student behavior?
Resources – Will the teacher or other students support the assessment, or is this an independent task? Can students use calculators, computers or other learning aids?
All students can learn – just not on the same day or in the same way. Teachers decide how they will support learning for all student by: Tailoring materials to student abilities and needs – Tailoring time to student abilities and need-Tailoring resources to student abilities and needs.
c. Performance Level
Sets the performance expectation on the assessment of the student behavior for the majority of students in the classroom.
You can measure:
1. The teacher can choose to measure correctness (number of right answers, a specified percentage, a score on a rubric,)
2. Completeness (completing all problems, showing all work,)
3. Participation (number or kind of comments, skills demonstrated during class, etc).